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Part 2 - Modern Diet and How Industrial Seed/Grain Oils Are Making us Inflamed and Sick

Part 2 – The effects of our modern diet on chronic inflammation

This article is part 2 of a series talking about chronic inflammation. To learn more about this topic, please check out Part 1 of this series here - 1.

In this article, I am going talk about how industrial seed oils are making us inflamed and sick, why is crucial to keep a good balance between our omega-6s and omega-3s ratio, how to do it, how to choose and use healthy cooking fats, and much more.

First of all, what are industrial seed/grain oils?

Industrial oils are extracted from seeds and grains and are highly processed products that were originally used in the soap-making process (see more here - 2).

The fatty acids found in industrial oils are considered polyunsaturated or PUFAs (omega-6s and omega-3s), highly sensitive and unstable to heat, light, water and air. Then, when these products are exposed to these factors they easily undergo to oxidation and have their nutrients completely destroyed (see more below). (3, 4, 5)

Examples of industrial seed and grain oils and their omega-6 and omega-3 content:

- Soybean oil – 51% omega-6s – 7% omega-3s

- Cottonseed oil – 50% omega-6s – 0% omega-3s

- Corn oil – 54% omega-6s – 0% omega-3s

- Rapeseed (canola) oil – 20% omega-6s– 9% omega-3s

- Sunflower oil – 65% omega-6s– 0% omega-3s

- Safflower oil – 75% omega-6s – 0% omega-3s

- Sesame oil – 42% omega-6s – 0% omega-3s

- Peanut oil – 32% omega-6s – 0% omega-3s

- Grapeseed oil – 696% omega-6s – 1% omega-3s*

*In the case of grapeseed oil, 70% of its composition in polyunsaturated fats versus 1% of monounsaturated fats. In fact, most of this polyunsaturated fat is in the form of linoleic acid or omega-6s, and less than 2% of its content is omega-3s. Which makes an insane omega-6 to 3 ratio of 696:1. (6, 7, 8)

Also, most of these highly processed industrial seed/grain oils undergo throughout several stages before they appear suitable for human consumption.

How industrial seed/grain oils are produced?

During the production process, oils from plants are extracted at high temperatures, and most industrial oils become bitter, smelly, and oxidized. For this reason, they need to go through many stages until they have a clear and consistent color and smell to be marketed.

Here, there is a summary of how industrial seed oils are made:

- Manufactures look for the cheapest seeds, normally derived from genetically modified crops

- Oils are extracted at very high temperature and pressure

- A toxic solvent called hexane is added in the last fraction of oil removal

- At this point, the oils are a brown, stinking, rancid substance

- Then, the oil is subjected to steam for cleaning

- After that, additional refining involves more heating

- Also, they add chemicals, drying, de-gumming, deodorization, and dangerous industrial antioxidants

- At least, they are heated five times until it is bottled for consumption

Then, the processing creates a high in omega-6, energy-dense, and nutrient-poor polyunsaturated oil. Packed with chemical residues, trans fats, and oxidized byproducts. Totally IMPROPER for human consumption. (9, 10)

What is being told us about industrial seed oils?

As you can see below, the consumption of these highly processed industrial seed/grain oils have been recommended and marketed for the last few decades as healthy options to our consume.

Then, if you visit the World Health Organization (WHO) website, you can see their recommendation to consume “less than 30% of our total daily energy in industrial seed oils such as sunflower, soybeans, canola.”, as part of a healthy diet. (11)

The Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010 says that Americans should limit their consumption of saturated fatty acids from animal sources and replace them with foods that are rich in mono-unsaturated fats and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Then, they suggest vegetable oils, including canola, safflower, soybeans, corn, and cottonseed as healthy options to prepare our foods. (12)

Also, most mainstream health professionals support the idea that the industrial seed oils reduce the risk of heart problems, and they keep encouraging their patients to consume these highly processed oils. (13)

However, when we look at the scientific evidence readily available, we find that industrial seed/grain oils are toxic, man-made products, devoid of nutrients, extremely bad for our health, and improper for human consumption. (14, 15, 16)

So, if you want to reduce chronic inflammation, you must forget about what you have been told before. Then, you must change your modern eating habits and completely avoid the consumption of these highly processed industrial oils in your diet. (17)

The consumption of industrialized oils is associated with numerous chronic health conditions

The consumption of industrial seed/grain oils is deeply ingrained in our food system, since it is been used in virtually every processed, packaged, frozen and restaurant food available around us.

In fact, the scientists say that the increase in the consumption of industrial seed/grain oils is associated with a variety of modern chronic diseases. As example: obesity, diabetes, heart disease, osteoarthritis, macular degeneration, cancer, mental health, asthma, chronic inflammation of the gut and much more. (18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27)

More than 40 percent of American adults are obese

Coincidence or not, just a few decades ago, before industrial seed oils became readily available on the market, 1 in 100 adult Americans was severely obese.

Then, according to the CDC – Center for Disease Control, the obesity rate in 2017-18 is 42.4% among adult Americans. About 4 in 10 American adults are obese and 1 in 10 is severely obese. A rate 10 times higher in a short time. (28)

Radical changes in the omega 6 to 3 ratio

According to scientists, we evolved on, and are genetically adapted to, a diet that provides more or less equal amounts of omega-6s and omega-3s.

However, in the last few decades, Western diets are greatly relying on the convenience of highly processed foods. In fact, currently the majority of us are overeating processed foods in a daily basis, packed with industrial seed/grain oils, rich in omega-6s. Besides, almost 90 percent of the population are not eating enough omega-3s in their diet.

Then, if we compare our modern eating habits with the diet on which our ancestors evolved, we realize that we are creating imbalances in the delicate omega-6 to omega-3 ratio.

As result, too much omega-6 and insufficient omega-3 consumption is becoming a growing concern for our health and well-being. (29, 30, 31)

Processed foods are addictive such as drugs or tobacco

The modern, highly processed, junk food is addictive in the same way that drugs, or tobacco is since it stimulates a reward system in the brain.

Basically, by consuming certain foods that are rich in fats and carbohydrates increases the release of hormones such as dopamine, serotonin, endorphins, that make us “feel good” (at least temporarily). These are the same hormones released with the use of nicotine, alcohol, cocaine and heroin.

Of course, the food industry knows very well about the reward system in the brain and take advantage of it. Unfairly, they have scientists, chemists, flavorists, etc., who work for them to maximize the appeal of their “food-like” products and get us even more hooked on their junk.

That is why many of us are showing common signs of addiction in our relationship with processed foods such as over-consumption, cravings, and powerlessness to reduce their consumption. Even when we know about the negative consequences of processed foods in our health. (32, 33, 34, 35)

The convenience of processed foods

Also, perhaps because we are immersed in our busy modern lifestyles, numerous studies suggest that convenience has an immense impact on our food choices and food products that offer less convenience will be considered less preferable to us. (36)

On the other hand, we do not need any effort to get processed products as they are readily available to us through convenience stores, markets, gas stations, drive-thru windows, home delivery, internet shopping, vending machines, etc.

Then, it is really alarming the growing in the consumption of fast food, pizzas, canned soups, ice creams, desserts, candies, packaged snacks as chips, popcorn, and cookies, frozen meals and pizzas, breakfast cereal, and more.

The alarming increase in the omega-6s and decrease in omega-3s consumption

As consequence, those who are following a Western diet are typically eating way too much omega-6s. Consequence of the massive quantities of industrial seed/grain oils that go into processed foods.

In addition to it, many of us are reducing the consumption of foods rich in omega-3s. Possibly motivated by the convenience and high palatability of modern foods.

Although we evolved consuming a diet with roughly equal amounts of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids, the Western diet

Is rapidly and radically transforming the composition of PUFAs (the omega-6 to 3 ratio), respected for millions of years. (37, 38,39)

The importance of our diet and lifestyle on gut microbiota and health

Our diet is considered a crucial factor that influences the composition and metabolic activity of our gut flora/microbiome. The gut flora/microbiome represents our internal ecosystem that contains trillions of bacteria.

These trillions of bacteria are always changing and are continuously shaped by many factors related to our eating habits, seasonality, our lifestyle, stress levels, use of antibiotics and drugs, diseases and more.

Basically, our diet needs to provide us energy and vital nutrients but also, it needs to feed and support the growth of our beneficial gut bacteria. (40, 41)

Changes in our diet, consequences on our gut flora/microbiota and overall health

The consumption of industrial seed/grain oils packed with omega-6 fatty acids has a direct and devastating impact in our gut flora/microbiome.

In fact, the consumption of these products is linked to promote structural, behavioral changes, and also a cascade of low-grade chronic inflammatory processes in our gut microbiota.

However, the consequences of low-grade inflammatory process go far beyond the walls of our intestines and is associated to contribute to most modern chronic conditions. As example: irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, gut dysbiosis, to obesity, metabolic disorders, diabetes, heart diseases, infertility, macular degeneration, cancer, especially neuroblastoma, breast, prostate, colon, and lung cancer, mental problems, autoimmune diseases, and more. (42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48)

Understanding omega-6 versus omega-3

It is well-known that the consumption of omega-3s have a protective effect against chronic inflammatory conditions such as cardiovascular diseases. (49)

On the other hand, as the consumption of industrial grain/seed oils, rich in omega-6 continues to increase, seems that nobody understands that a diet high omega-6 causes chronic inflammation. (50)

Scientists continue to say that the over-consumption of omega-6s in the modern diets is one of the major contributors for the pandemic of inflammatory conditions we are seeing around us. (51, 52, 53, 54)

Then, it is important for us to keep in mind that the consumption of omega-6 and omega-3 produce opposite effects in our body:

- Omega-6 fatty acids tend to promote inflammation in our body

- Omega-3 fatty acids tend to have anti-inflammatory effects on our body

Polyunsaturated fats (PUFAs) can be subdivided into:

- Omega-6s - Linoleic Acid - LA

- Industrial seed/grain oils are very rich in linoleic acid (LA), a type of omega-6 found in plants

- Animal fats have arachidonic acid (AA)

- Omega-3s – Alpha Linoleic Acid – ALA

- Industrial seed/grain oils are rich in alpha-linoleic acid (ALA), a type of omega-3 found in plants

- Animal fats contain eicosatetraenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA).

Omega-6s and omega-3s are considered essential fatty acids

The human body is capable of producing almost all fatty acids we need, except for these two: omega-6s and omega-3s.

So, to guarantee optimal health and well-being, we must get both, omega-6s and omega3s in a balanced ratio from the diet we eat, since our body cannot produce these fatty acids on its own. (55, 56, 57)

Why do we need omega-6 and omega-3?

A healthy diet needs balance of omega-6 and omega-3. Together, these fatty acids have anti-inflammatory effects and promote optimal health and longevity.

Then, along with omega-6 fatty acids, omega-3 fatty acids are needed for many functions in our body and play a crucial role in our health as you can see below:

- They are building material for our cell membranes, particularly the neurons in the brain but, also, for tissues and organs

- They are crucial for brain function and mental health

- They regulate the information flows between cells

- They have a profound influence on all body inflammatory responses

- They regulate gene expression

- They are important components involved in blood pressure regulation and to support cardiovascular health

- They regulate metabolism, support the maintenance of a healthy weight, and the prevention of obesity

- They support the synthesis of certain biological active substances

- They are involved in the energy-transformation process

- They stimulate skin and hair growth

- They maintain bone health

- They support the reproductive system, and more

Which means that the balance between omega-6s and omega-3s is crucial in preventing degenerative heart disease and many other modern diseases. Such as obesity, diabetes, certain types of cancers, gastrointestinal disorders, mental problems, neuro-degenerative diseases like Alzheimer's, and more. (58, 59, 60)

We evolved on a diet with a balanced omega-6 to omega-3 ratio

Anthropological and epidemiological studies suggest that our ancestors evolved on a diet with an omega-6 to 3 ratio of approximately 1 to 1 to maybe 4 to 1. As result, they remained relatively free from chronic inflammatory diseases for millions of years of our history.

So, basically, our ancestors ate for millions of years about the same amount of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in their diets and they were relatively health.

Also, the sources of omega-6s available to our ancestors were derived from a combination of whole, fresh, and unprocessed foods. As example, high quality meat from free-range animals, wild fish, eggs, nuts and seeds.

In fact, scientists say that the consumption of omega-6 from these traditional, natural, unprocessed sources is considered part of a healthy eating plan. Since these foods are rich in omega-6s, but they are also packed with nutrients such as fiber, minerals such as magnesium, calcium, potassium, vitamins such as E, A, D, B6, tocopherol, and more. Important nutrients for optimal health.

Besides, some of these nutrients found in natural, unprocessed food sources of omega-6s, such as magnesium and vitamin E, play a protective role preventing the delicate fatty acids available in these foods from oxidize. (61, 62, 63)

Omega-6s and omega-3s oxidation

PUFAs, polyunsaturated fatty acids are hydrocarbon chains containing two or more double bonds. This characteristic makes them more sensitive, susceptible, and prone to oxidation than saturated fats. (64, 65, 66)

Lipid oxidation is a process that results in rancidity and deterioration of a fat/lipid.

Factors that will significantly increases the oxidation process in lipid/fats:

- The temperature/heat at which a fat is exposed

- The presence of light

- The presence of air/oxygen

- The presence of moisture/humidity

- The presence of microorganisms

- The ionizing radiation – high energy radiation on food increases the susceptibility to oxidation

- Heavy metals – increase the rate of chemical reactions and the susceptibility to oxidation

Oxidation of a fat is a process that results in the formation of free radicals and chemical compounds, with potentially detrimental effects in our health. Oxidation produces changes in the fat flavor and smell, but also, totally destroys its nutrients. (67, 68)

The more polyunsaturated a fat, the more delicate, unstable, and susceptible to oxidative deterioration

Most industrial seed/grain oils can only be extracted through a very complicated process involving high heat and extreme pressure. But, as we saw above, the fatty acids in these oils are highly susceptible to heat.

For this reason, from the process by which industrial oils are made and transported they undergo to a series of chemical reactions that includes oxidation.

Also, further deterioration and oxidative damage continues when PUFAs are heated during the cooking process, and each chemical change is fully absorbed into our food. (69, 70)

The alarming increase in the historical ratio between omega-6 and omega-3 consumption

Actually, we are greatly exceeding our ancestor’s omega-6 to omega-3 ratio of 1 to 1, to maybe maximum of 4 to 1, respected for thousands of years.

Then, currently, the omega-6 to omega-3 ratio is ridiculously high, between 10 to 1 to 25 to 1. Meaning that today we are eating up to 25 times more omega-6s than omega-3s in our diets than our ancestors ate.

According to scientists, the consequences of such a dramatic and radical shift in our historical omega-6 to omega-3 ratio can potentiate inflammatory processes and consequently result or exacerbate the manifestation of many inflammatory diseases.

In fact, an imbalanced dietary intake of omega 6 and omega-3 fatty acids is associated to chronic conditions such as cardiovascular disease, obesity, metabolic syndrome. diabetes, gastrointestinal disorders, rheumatoid arthritis, various types of cancer, asthma, allergies, poor memory, Alzheimer's disease, stroke, dementia, autism, asthma, autoimmune diseases, and much more. (71, 72, 73, 74, 75)

The really essential Omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids

As we saw before, the omega-6 found in industrial seed/grain oils is linoleic acid (LA), is not the right kind of fatty acids our body needs. The really essential omega-6 is called arachidonic acid (AA), and is easily found in whole food sources such as seeds, nuts and animal foods.

Likewise, the omega-3 found in industrial seed/grain oils and also in plants is linoleic acid (LA), and is not the right kind of fatty acid our body needs. The really essential omega-3s is found in wild fatty fish and also, in animal fats, and is called eicosatetraenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA).

If optimal health is your goal, forget artificial, man-made fats such as found in industrial seed/grain oils. Instead, look fats that were consumed for thousands of years by our ancestors. And basically, use traditional olive oil, coconut oil, and animal fats that are natural, and nourish our bodies with vital nutrients. (76)

Healthy cooking fats/oils options and their smoke point

Keep in mind that fat/oils from different sources can vary significantly in their nutritional composition. What means that they can vary in the proportions and types of fatty acids they contain, which significantly influence their health effects.

Then, always choose your fats/oils as closer to nature as possible. Also, prefer cold-pressed, unfiltered, unrefined versions to guarantee better quality and some extra nutrients in your food. (77, 78)

Healthy options of fat/oils to cook, their smoke point and their percentage of omega-6s and omega-3s

- Coconut oil (cold pressed and unrefined) - 350 degrees Fahrenheit – 2% omega 6s – does not contain omega-3s – rather is a source of medium chain fatty acids (MCT)

- Palm oil - 455 degrees F – 10% omega-6s – 1% omega-3s

- Extra virgin olive oil – 320 degrees – 10% omega-6s – 0.7% omega-3s

- Lard - 370 degrees F – 10% omega-6s – 1% omega-3s

- Beef tallow from grass-fed animals - 400 degrees F – 1% omega-6s – 1% omega-3s

- Beef tallow from CAFO – 400 degrees F – 3% omega-6s – 1% omega-3s

- Duck fat - 375 degrees F – 10% omega-6s -2% omega-3s

- Chicken fat - 375 degrees F – 19% omega-6 – 1% omega3s

- Ghee - 450 degrees F – 1% omega-6s

- Butter from grass-fed animals - 350 degrees F – 1% omega-6s

- Butter from CAFO animals – 350 degrees F – 2% omega-6s

As you can see, for high-heat cooking, the better options for high-heat cooking are fats such as palm oil, ghee, beef tallow, lard, chicken and duck fats.

The fats above have a lower concentration of LA - omega-6s fatty acids, and some of them have short and medium chain fatty acids (MCTs), such as butyric acid. Besides, they are relatively free of harmful trans-fatty acids and toxins. Also, they are great sources of fat-soluble vitamins such as vitamin A, D, E, K and B1 that are easily absorbed into our body.

These fats are rich in powerful nutrients and antioxidants that are crucial to good health. In fact, studies show that these nutrients might reduce body inflammation, protect our heart and blood vessels from plaques, help increase insulin sensitivity, reduce fatty tissue and hunger, and more. (79, 80)

What is a smoke point and why does it matter?

The smoke point of a fat/oil is related with the safety and stability to heat of that fat, and each fat/oil have their own smoke point.

Then, the smoke point of a fat is the temperature at which an oil/fat begins to form a dark smoke and undergo to chemical changes. Oxidizing, decomposing into free fatty acids, and releasing harmful substances that are added into our food.

So, if an oil/fat is heated to its smoke point, it will produce a dark, pungent, unpleasant smelly smoke that is extremely toxic and dangerous for the health of our lungs.

If you are cooking and notice a dark, pungent smoke coming from the oil/fat you are using please, do the following:

- Immediately open the window in your house to get ventilation, and do not breathe this smoke

- Wait for the grease to cool and then throw it in your kitchen trash

- Thoroughly wash your skillet or pot to remove all oxidized grease from it

- Start cooking your food again

Remember that for optimal health, we must respect the temperature that each oil/fat can tolerate or their individual smoke point. Avoiding the consumption of oxidized fat/oil in our diet.

(81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89)

Choose your fats as closer to nature as possible

Keep in mind that fats/oils from different sources can vary significantly in their nutritional composition. What means that they can vary in the proportions and types of fatty acids they contain. And this can significantly influence their health effects.

Always choose the fats/oils as closer to nature as possible, and cold-pressed, unfiltered, unrefined to guarantee better quality and some extra nutrients in your food. (90, 91, 92)

How to protect ourselves from chronic inflammation

Below you will find 17 simple ways to avoid over consumption of omega 6 and fight chronic inflammation:

1- Eat regularly a healthy, nutrient-dense diet, with a wide variety of meat, chicken, fish, seafood, vegetables, roots, salads, fruits, fresh herbs, spices, teas, nuts, etc.

Think about your diet as the source of vital nutrients to nourish you. Then, look the highest quality products your money can buy. If possible, choose vegetables, fruits and salads that are fresh, local and organic. Also, meat, butter, chicken, and eggs from pasture-raised animals, raised without grain, hormones, drugs, etc.

Select meat from free-range animals as they have a significant higher concentration of DHA and AA (the truly essential fatty acids) as you can see below.

- Pasture-raised beef omega 6 to 3 ratio is 2.1 to 1

- Pasture-raised chicken breast omega 6 to 3 ratio is 5.6 to 1

- They also have powerful essential fat-soluble vitamins such as vitamins A, D, E, K2, B1, B12, etc. And minerals such as iron, magnesium, zinc, etc. (93, 94, 95)

Comparing to:

- CAFO raised beef omega 6 to 3 ratio is 6.3 to 1

- CAFO chicken breast omega 6 to 3 ratio is 18.5 to 1

2- nutritional powerhouses in your diet and eat organ meat such as pasture-raised meats and organ meat such as liver, heart, tongue, kidney or any source of organ meat you can eat. They are the most nutrient-dense foods on the planet. Their vitamins, fatty acids, and minerals are readily available to us. Meaning that they do not need conversion to be used by our bodies. (96, 97)

3- Nourish your way to heal and regularly include omega-3 rich foods in your diet. Aim for at least 15-20 ounces per week of wild fatty fish that are low in mercury. As example sardines, mackerel, salmon, herring, etc. And also, a varied of crustaceous and seafood. (98)

4-Do not take fish oil-omega-3 supplements regularly. Prefer to eat your foods rich in omega 3 in your daily diet as many studies suggest that it is much safer when we eat omega-3 rich foods through our diet. (99, 100)

Basically, like the industrial seed/grain oils, the vast majority of omega-3 supplements on the market go through a battery of processing steps in their production. All designed to create an easy-pouring, shelf-stable fish oil. And involve high heat and pressure, vacuums, solvents, moisture and chemicals.

However, as we saw before, omega-3 fatty acids have a highly unstable chemical structure. Then, each of these steps further weakens the integrity and nutritional value of the oil. Most popular brands of omega-3s are purified to the point where the natural vitamins A and D3 are damaged and completely destroyed. Resulting that many producers add synthetic vitamins do their products.

Synthetic and natural vitamins do not have the same synergistic healing effects.

The only brand on the market that extracts omega-3s from wild-caught, fresh, raw cod liver oil is called Rosita. In fact, Rosita is a cod liver oil, rich in vitamins A and D. Also, it has a full spectrum of omega fatty acids, including omega-3 in the form of EPA and DHA. (101)

5- Keep in mind that the amount of omega-3 you need to eat daily depends directly on how much omega-6 you eat.

6- Stop eating processed foods, filled with oxidized omega-6 fats. The rule is: anything that comes packaged or in a box, don't buy it. Then, avoid fast foods, French fries, hamburgers, sweets, breads, desserts, ice-creams, muffins, cereal, granola, pretzels, sauces, salad dressings, pizzas, frozen foods, etc.

7- Reduce the consumption of nuts and seeds, as they are rich in omega-6 fats and should be consumed in moderation. In addition, they must be properly prepared for better digestion (soaking and dehydrating again), and nutrient absorption. (102, 103)

8- Likewise, eat in moderation flax seeds and flaxseed oils, sesame seeds and sesame seeds oil, avocado oil, almond oil, walnut oil, etc. These are also highly processed products, rich in omega-6 fatty acids (LA). Remember that “not all that shines is not gold” . (104,105)

9- Avoid at all costs the consumption of man-made, artificial fats such as found in industrial seed/grain oils. As example, canola/rapeseed oil, sunflower, safflower, rice oil, corn oil, soybean oil, grapeseed oil, cottonseed oil, peanut oil, rice bran oil, etc.

Remember that these are products completely devoid of nutrients and full of potentially oxidized PUFAs. Toxic to human consumption.

10- Also, avoid at all costs the consumption of margarine, hydrogenated or partially hydrogenated fats, salad dressings, mayonnaise and any condiment made with industrial seed/grain oils.

11- Replace the industrial seed oils listed above with healthy fat choices. Then, eat liberally, olive oil, coconut oil, palm oil, ghee, duck fat, lamb fat, chicken far, lard, beef tallow, butter, etc. These fats have a nutrient content that protect them from oxidative stress and are vital for optimal health.

12- Keep in mind that fat quality matters. Then, always look for the best quality possible. If possible, prefer grass-fed, organic, extra virgin, cold pressed and unfiltered forms to ensure extra nutrients and avoid harmful chemicals

13- Store your fat/oils in a cool, dark place. Always prefer oils in dark bottles and keep them tightly closed. Avoid products that come in plastic or cans. Take care that they do not come into contact with light, heat, water and air – the enemies of cooking fat/oils.

14- If you go to restaurants, kindly ask to the chef to use olive oil to prepare your dish, and, to cook your meal under low/medium temperature.

15- When you cook at home, consider using gentle heat (low/medium heat) to prepare your meals. Even if you are cooking with a healthy fat always respect the heat tolerance or smoke point of each fat/oil.

16- Keep in mind that each oil/fat has their own smoke point. Then, if you heat a fat above their smoke point, it will increase the susceptibility to form potentially toxic compounds, destroy its vital nutrients, and become improper for consumption.

Basically, the recommendations above will help you reduce your PUFA intake and maintain an adequate ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids in your daily diet.

As we saw above, a well-balanced omega-6s to omega-3s intake is crucial to control body inflammation and guarantee us a better mood, clear skin, better digestion, weight loss and weight management, for more energy, to lower blood sugar levels, and optimal health in general.

In fact, these are simple and powerful tools to help us keep body inflammation in check. It is important to remember that efforts to reduce chronic inflammation pay off over time with improved health and reduced risk of chronic modern health conditions.

Please, leave your comment or questions in the link below.


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44- https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34203196/

45- https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17045449/

46- https://www.theguardian.com/business/2012/jun/11/why-our-food-is-making-us-fat

47- https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/88/4/913/4649889?login=false

48- https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26062993/

49- https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Omega3FattyAcids-HealthProfessional/#:~:text=Omega%2D3%20Intakes%20and%20Status,-%20According%20to%20data&text=In%20adults%20aged%2020%20and,in%20adults%29%20%5B39%5D

50- https://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/agriculture-and-food/oecd-fao-agricultural-outlook-2015/vegetable-oil-projections-consumption-per-capita-food-use_agr_outlook-2015-table132-en

51- https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33815845/

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54- https://www.ers.usda.gov/amber-waves/2016/december/a-look-at-calorie-sources-in-the-american-diet

55- https://chriskresser.com/essentialfattyacids/

56- https://www.westonaprice.org/health-topics/know-your-fats/precious-yet-perilous/

57- https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21804620/

58- https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18449139/

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63- https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7990530/

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66- https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3866755/

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68- https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4066722/

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73- https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7990530/

74- https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/products/databriefs/db100.htm

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76- https://chriskresser.com/essential-fatty-acids-not-so-essential-after-all/

77- https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9002916/

78- https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8774349/

79- https://www.westonaprice.org/health-topics/know-your-fats/good-fats-bad-fats-separating-fact-from-fiction/

80- https://chriskresser.com/healthy-fats-what-you-need-to-know/

81- https://www.chhs.colostate.edu/krnc/monthly-blog/cooking-with-fats-and-oils/

82- https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30065418/

83- https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8774349/

84- https://actascientific.com/ASNH/pdf/ASNH-02-0083.pdf

85- https://openventio.org/Volume1-Issue6/Oxidation-of-Polyunsaturated-Fatty-Acids-and-its-Impact-on-Food-Quality-and-Human-Health-AFTNSOJ-1-123.pdf

86- https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3435540/

87- https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/72/4/905/4729355

88- https://lipidworld.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12944-020-01256-0

89- https://www.westonaprice.org/health-topics/know-your-fats/the-big-fat-surprise-toxic-heated-oils/

90- https://www.westonaprice.org/health-topics/rendering-animal-fats-made-easy/

91- https://www.westonaprice.org/health-topics/abcs-of-nutrition/saturated-fat-body-good/

92- https://www.westonaprice.org/book-reviews/the-skinny-on-fats-by-david-brownstein-sheryl-shenefelt/

93- https://www.westonaprice.org/health-topics/farm-ranch/meat-grass-fed-animals-expensive/

94- https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6434678/

95- https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2846864/

96- https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6147775/

97- https://www.westonaprice.org/podcast/eat-your-liver-other-organ-meats-too/

98- https://www.westonaprice.org/podcast/265-optimize-your-ratio-of-essential-fatty-acids/

99- https://www.westonaprice.org/health-topics/abcs-of-nutrition/vitamin-d-supplementation-panacea-potential-problem/

100- https://chriskresser.com/should-you-really-be-taking-fish-oil/

101- https://chriskresser.com/weston-a-price-foundation-clarifies-claims-against-cod-liver-oil/

102- https://www.westonaprice.org/podcast/250-neutralize-anti-nutrients/

103- https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5748761/

104- https://chriskresser.com/why-fish-stomps-flax-seeds-as-a-source-of-omega-3/

105- https://scialert.net/fulltext/?doi=ijbc.2016.1.6

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